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Chapter Glossary

Term Definition

An advanced mound building culture that lived in southern Ohio and neighboring regions of modern-day West Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana during the Early Woodland Period (800 B.C.E. to 100 B.C.E.). 

Alligator Mound

An effigy mound in Granville, Ohio which is believed to be a ceremonial site. 


A scientist who studies artifacts to learn about people and the past. 


The study or artifacts, often unearthed through excavation, to understand people from the past. 

Archaic Period

An early period from 8000 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E. during which people moved less and started to settle in areas and build houses. 


Something made by a human being that typically has historical or cultural significance. 


Or spear-thrower, is a wodden shaft with a handle at one end and a hook at the other to throw a speak farther in distance. 


A form of civilization that follows the same style of living. 


Piling of earth and soil in various shapes which is used for spiritual ceremonies and defense. 

Effigy Mounds

Raised piles of earth formed into a stylized animal or symbol that can represent new development or a spiritual area


Sureveying an area of land by digging and finding artifacts

Fort Ancient

An advanced mound building culture that lived in southern Ohio and Northern Kentucky that lived during the Late Prehistoric Period (900 C.E. to 1650 C.E.). 


An advanced mound building culture that lived in Ohio and Illinois during the Middle Woodland Period (100 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.). 


Made an educated guess. 

Late Prehistoric Period

Time period from around 900 C.E. to 1650 C.E. during which effigy mounds were built and interaction with European explorers began. 

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